The Pressure Peaking Phenomena (PPP) is the effect of introducing a light gas into a vented volume of denser gas. This will result in a nonequilibrium pressure as the light gas pushes the dense gas out at the vent. Large scale experiments have been performed to produce relevant evidence. The results were used to validate an analytical model. Pressure and temperature were measured inside a constant volume, while the mass flow and vent area were varied. The analytical model was based on the conservation of mass and energy. The results showed that increasing the mass flow rate, the peak pressure increases and with increasing the ventilation area, the peak pressure decreases. Peak pressure was measured above 45 kPa. Longer combustion time resulted in higher temperatures, increasing an underpressure effect. The experimental results showed agreement with the analytical model results. The model predicts the pressures within reasonable limits ofþ/-2 kPa. The pressure peaking phenomena could be very relevant for hydrogen applications in enclosures with limited ventilation. This could include car garages, ship hull compartments as well as compressor shielding. This work shows that the effect can be modeled and results can be used in design to reduce the consequences.
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 826193